Funerals and tangihanga
Whānau and tūpāpaku
Release of tūpāpaku (the body) to whānau
In most cases when a person has died the doctor who looked after them during their final illness will sign a certificate confirming the cause of death, and legally this immediately releases the tūpāpaku to the whānau so that it can be buried.
In some cases, however, a death has to be reported to the local coroner, who may then want to do a post-mortem (autopsy) to confirm the cause of death (see above “Confirming and registering the death”). The law here requires the coroner to take account of tikanga Māori and other cultural beliefs and practices in various ways:
- When deciding whether to order a post-mortem, the coroner has to take into account whether this would cause distress or offence to the family because of their cultural beliefs and practices. (The family can also object to the post-mortem, and can take their objection to the High Court if necessary.)
- If the coroner does decide a post-mortem is necessary, the coroner can order it to be done immediately to take account of requirements under tikanga Māori (or other cultural beliefs and practices) for the tūpāpaku to be released to the family as soon as possible after death.
- The coroner can also allow whānau (and a minister) to stay with the tūpāpaku while it’s with the coroner. This recognises the tikanga requirements that whānau should stay with the tūpāpaku at all times until burial.
Note: In January 2018 the government introduced a bill into Parliament that would require the coroner to consider tikanga Māori and other cultural expectations when deciding whether to let someone remain with the tūpāpaku. To find out whether this law change has been made by the time you’re reading this, check at and see if that section now mentions tikanga Māori.
Disagreements among whānau about where tūpāpaku will be buried
If whānau disagree about where the deceased’s body should be buried, the person who has the legal power to decide is the executor under the deceased’s will. If there’s no will, then this power will usually rest with the closest relative, as the person who has the best legal claim to be appointed by the courts as the “administrator” for the estate (for more details, see in this chapter “Burial and cremation”).
The executor/administrator has to take into account the views of immediate and wider whānau, and to consider different cultural, religious and spiritual practices. However, they don’t have to actively seek out the views of whānau.
Whānau can also challenge the executor/administrator’s decisions in the High Court.
Financial support for tangihanga
What financial support is available to whānau for tangihanga?
Contact your iwi organisation to find out if you’re able to get a grant for the tangihanga. Whānau may also be able to get funding from a Māori land trust or other organisation in which they (or the deceased) have an interest (see the chapter “Māori land”, under “Methods of managing Māori land: Trusts, incorporations, and reservations”).
To find out about other possible sources of support, contact Te Puni Kōkiri or your local marae or Māori church.
You may also be able to get a funeral grant from Work and Income, or from ACC if the deceased died in an accident (for more information, see in this chapter “Financial support for bereaved families”).
Gathering kaimoana for tangihanga and hui
Overview of Māori customary fishing rights
The amateur fishing regulations allow anyone to gather shellfish and other kaimoana up to particular daily limits if they’re not fishing or gathering commercially, and this might be enough for the tangihanga you’re preparing for. For example, the limit for pāua is usually 10 per person per day, and so a group of three of you can gather up to 30 pāua in one day (for the amateur daily limits, see the chapter “Common crimes”, under “Pāua poaching and other fisheries offences”). However, if a tangihanga or hui will need more than those standard limits allow, you can ask local tangata whenua to give you written permission to go over the limits, or to use different fishing methods or equipment than would normally be allowed.
The detailed rules that apply are slightly different depending on whether or not kaitiaki have been formally confirmed by the Ministry of Primary Industries for your particular rohe (area) under the special customary fishing regulations.
Those customary fishing regulations enable local tangata whenua – those who have mana whenua and mana moana over the particular rohe – to appoint particular people to be kaitiaki for that rohe. The appointment of those individuals for that rohe is then formally confirmed by the Ministry of Primary Industries (MPI). The appointed kaitiaki can then give written permission for customary food gathering within their rohe.
If no kaitiaki have been formally appointed for your particular rohe, you’re still allowed to gather for tangihanga and hui under the amateur fishing regulations if you get written permission from a representative of local tangata whenua: for more details, see below, “How do I get permission for customary fishing, and who from?”
Kaitiaki have been appointed under the special customary fishing regulations for several hundred different rohe, but there are also many rohe that aren’t covered. For example, kaitiaki have been appointed for Whakatāne and Ōhope in the Bay of Plenty, but Waiōtahi and Ōpōtiki further east aren’t covered and therefore come under the rules in the amateur fishing regulations.
There may also be specific regulations that apply to customary fishing in particular rivers and lakes. Generally these will set out the same sort of processes as the customary fishing regulations. MPI, or your local iwi organisation, should be able to tell you if specific rules apply in your area.
Note: The MPI website has a map showing all the rohe for which kaitiaki have been formally appointed under the customary fishing regulations. Go to: www2.nabis.govt.nz/map.aspx?topic=CustomaryAreas . You can also ask the MPI about this by email, on firstname.lastname@example.org
Traditional purposes for which kaimoana can be gathered
If kaitiaki have been formally appointed for your rohe, they can give you written permission to gather kaimoana for tangihanga, hui, koha or any other traditional purpose that they specifically decide.
If no kaitiaki have been formally appointed for your rohe, written permission from representatives of local tangata whenua can only be given for gathering kaimoana for hui or tangihanga.
How do I get permission for customary fishing, and who from?
If no kaitiaki have been formally appointed for your rohe, you’ll need to get written permission from either:
- the committee for your marae
- the local rūnanga
- a local Māori Committee established under the Māori Community Development Act 1962
- a Māori Trust Board.
You’ll need to keep the written permission with you, ready to show to fisheries officers if necessary.
What kinds of conditions will the authorisation include?
When an official kaitiaki for your rohe gives you permission, this has to be in writing (unless the kaitiaki has formally confirmed some other process with the Ministry of Primary Industries). It must include a lot of detail – usually it has to say:
- the dates it applies to
- the names of the people who can gather the kaimoana
- the purpose for which the kaimoana can be taken (such as a tangihanga)
- the particular species covered and how many of each species can be taken
- size limits
- the fishing methods that can be used, and
- the particular place where the catch can be used (the local marae for example).
The kaitiaki will set the size limits, catch limits, allowable methods and so on. They don’t have to follow the regular limits and restrictions that apply under the amateur fishing regulations.
If you breach any of the conditions, you won’t be protected by the customary fishing rules and could face criminal charges.
Permission granted by local tangata whenua if no kaitiaki have been officially appointed must set out the dates and the areas the permission applies to, and also a catch limit. It can also set down size limits and restrictions on fishing methods.
Help from iwi organisations in preparing for tangihanga
It may also be a good idea to contact your iwi organisation about your preparations for a tangihanga and what kaimoana you might need. A number of iwi organisations have set up processes to help their members get permits, and some may even be able to help supply kaimoana.
What happens if I gather kaimoana without permission?
If you gather kaimoana for customary purposes without getting proper written permission from the kaitiaki or local tangata whenua, you can be given an infringement notice (like a speeding ticket) for a fine of up to $500, or in more serious cases you could face criminal charges in court. The same applies if you’ve got permission but you haven’t followed all the conditions – for example, if you go outside the specific areas the permission applies to, or you take more than it allows.
In serious cases you could potentially be given a community-based sentence (like community work) or a jail term. Any equipment you used when fishing, like your boat, car and diving gear, could also be seized and taken from you permanently.
(For information about the possible charges and penalties for fisheries offences, see the chapter “Common crimes”, under “Pāua poaching and other fisheries offences”.)
Note: Fisheries officers (who work for MPI) have very wide search and seizure powers and powers to require people to answer questions.
Whānau decisions about property
Making decisions about the deceased’s property at tangihanga
At a tangihanga, whānau can make decisions about Māori land, which will then need to be confirmed by the Māori Land Court. For more information, see below in this chapter, “Dealing with the deceased’s property / Māori land”.