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Taking action through a “personal grievance”: Overview


What is a personal grievance?

Employment Relations Act 2000, Part 9

A “personal grievance” is one of the main ways for workers to take a legal claim against their employer if they believe their employer has acted unfairly or unreasonably towards them.

You can use the personal grievance process if your employer has fired (“dismissed”) you unfairly or done something else you think is unjustified, such as unfairly or unreasonably putting you off work (“suspending” you), giving you a written warning, or giving you a lesser job (“demoting” you). A personal grievance is also available on certain other grounds, like discrimination and sexual harassment. See below, “On what grounds can I bring a personal grievance?”.

Employment Relations Act 2000, ss 102, 103

There’s a particular process you must follow when you bring a personal grievance. You must first raise the issue with your employer within 90 days. Then, if you’re not satisfied with their response, a free mediation service is available. If mediation doesn’t work, you can take your grievance to the Employment Relations Authority. See “Raising a personal grievance: The process” in this section.

Employment Relations Act 2000, s 103(1)

On what grounds can I bring a personal grievance?

The personal grievance process is available only for a specific set of grounds:

  • unjustified dismissal – when you’ve been unfairly fired
  • unjustified disadvantage – when your employer did something unreasonably or unfairly that negatively affected your employment conditions – for example taking away a benefit
  • discrimination
  • sexual harassment
  • racial harassment
  • duress” – that is, pressure from the employer about union membership or union activity
  • breaches around hours and shifts – a breach of your rights around agreed hours, availability clauses, cancellation of shifts, or restrictions on other (“secondary”) employment
  • health and safety retaliation – retaliation against you because of a health and safety dispute.

These grounds are explained in detail in the following sections of this chapter.

Migrant workers

Taking a personal grievance if you’re on a work visa

If you’re in New Zealand on a work visa that’s dependent on you having a job, and you’re then legitimately dismissed, you’re legally required to leave the country.

However, if you believe you were dismissed unjustifiably, you should get legal help. You should also consider telling Immigration New Zealand – they may grant you a temporary visa or decide to change the conditions on your existing visa to allow you to stay in New Zealand while you take the personal grievance. However, having a legitimate personal grievance is no guarantee that Immigration New Zealand will change your visa or visa conditions to allow you to stay in the country.

Note: If you plan to bring a personal grievance, it’s important that you deal with the issue of your visa early on. If your current visa expires, you’ll then be in New Zealand unlawfully and this will restrict your ability to apply for future visas.

If a migrant employee has been treated particularly poorly by an employer, then Immigration New Zealand may be interested in prosecuting that employer (see the chapter “Starting and leaving a job”, under “Migrants and other vulnerable workers”).

Raising a personal grievance when you’re working for a labour hire company (“triangular employment”)

What is triangular employment?

Employment Relations Act 2000, s 103(3)

Triangular employment is where you’re employed by one employer but you spend your day working directly for someone else – for example you’re employed by a labour hire company but work day-to-day for another company on a building site. This can be a short-term or long-term arrangement.

Until recently workers employed by labour hire companies who were sent to work day-to-day under the control of another company (called a “controlling third party”) could only bring a personal grievance against their employer (the labour hire company) and not against the third party who was supervising their work at the time.

personal grievance at labour hire company diagram

Taking a personal grievance if you work for a labour-hire company

Employment Relations Act 2000, ss103B, 115A, 123A

Under the new “triangular employment” law, workers employed by labour hire companies who are treated unfairly by the company that supervises them day-to-day (the “controlling third party”) will now be able to take a personal grievance claim to the Employment Relations Authority, not only against the labour hire company but also against the controlling third party.

You must tell the controlling third party within 90 days after the action or incident that you believe they caused or contributed to the grievance. Your employer can also apply to have that third party joined to your personal grievance claim and the third party can also agree to be joined after the 90 day period. Mediation is available to all three sides involved.

If the Employment Relations Authority decides that the labour hire company and the controlling third party share responsibility for what happened, it can order that they both pay compensation and in proportions that reflect each one’s level of responsibility.

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Resolving employment problems

Where to go for more support

Community Law

www.communitylaw. org.nz

Your local Community Law Centre can provide free initial legal advice if you’re facing problems at work.

Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment


The Employment Relations website of the Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment has a range of information on personal grievances, mediation, the Employment Relations Authority and the Employment Court. This includes a pamphlet contained information on all those topics, called “Solving Problems at Work”.

Free phone 0800 20 90 20, for general enquiries about resolving employment problems.

Early Resolution Service


The Early Resolution Service is a service offered by the Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment. It is a free phone-based service to help employees and employers resolve workplace issues before it becomes too serious or needs a more formal process.

For more information on the Early Resolution Service, you can fill out the form on www.employment.govt.nz or call 0800 20 90 20.

Labour inspectors

Labour inspectors monitor and enforce minimum employment conditions. To refer a problem to a labour inspector, you contact the Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment on: Free phone 0800 20 90 20

Employment Relations Authority


If you’re unable to settle at mediation, the next step is to file your claim in the Employment Relations Authority. For more information, visit the Authority’s website.

New Zealand Council of Trade Unions, Te Kauae Kaimahi


Phone: (04) 385 1334
Email: info@nzctu.org.nz

Union members should contact their union for support in resolving problems at work.

Immigration New Zealand


Free phone: 0508 558 855
Phone: (09) 914 4100 (Auckland)
Phone: (04) 910 9915 (Wellington)

The Immigration New Zealand website has extensive information about the various types of visas and other immigration issues. There is also specific information on human trafficking and the help that’s available for people trapped in these situations.

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