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Criminal & traffic law

Cyberbullying: Protections against online/digital harassment

Complaining to the website, phone company or other “online host”

How to complain

Harmful Digital Communications Act 2015, s 25(1)

You can make a written complaint with the online host yourself, or you can ask NetSafe, as the cyberbullying complaints agency, to make the complaint for you, on your behalf.

NetSafe can also give you advice and help about your complaint.

What to include in your complaint

Harmful Digital Communications Act 2015, s 24(3)

Your complaint should be in writing and should:

  • give your contact details, including a physical address
  • identify the particular material so the host can locate it easily
  • say why you think the material you’re complaining about either breaches the communications principles (see: “The 10 principles for online/digital behaviour”) or is “unlawful” (it could be unlawful because, for example, it includes false statements that are defamatory)
  • say whether you agree to the host identifying you when they pass on your complaint to the person responsible for the material.

The complaints process

Harmful Digital Communications Act 2015, ss 23–25

Since July 2015, the Harmful Digital Communications Act has encouraged all people or organisations that host online content to provide their users with a complaints process that’s effective and easy to access.

The “online content hosts” covered by the Act include phone companies, media companies and Internet Service Providers (ISPs), and also all people who run websites, social media pages, online forums and blogs on which other people can post comments, pictures or videos.

The Act incentivises online hosts by protecting them from legal responsibility for material posted by other people if the host follows the complaints process set out in the Act. These protections are sometimes called “safe harbour” provisions. They will, for example, protect a website operator from being sued for defamation if a user posts false statements about someone.

To benefit from the safe harbour protections, an online content host must provide an easily accessible way for people to:

  • complain about content – such as a simple button or other clear link on the host’s website, and
  • once a complaint is made, follow the steps explained below, including the relevant time limits.

Harmful Digital Communications Act 2015, s 24(2)

These are the steps the online host has to follow if they want to be protected from legal responsibility after you’ve complained to them about a harmful online post:

  • They have 48 hours to send a copy of your complaint to the person responsible for the post.
  • If they can’t contact the other person after making reasonable efforts (for example, if they can’t find out who the person responsible is), the host has to remove the content within 48 hours after first receiving your complaint.
  • If the person responsible for the post is contacted successfully, they can respond to your complaint within 48 hours, and say whether or not they agree to the material being taken down. Their response is called a “counter-notice”.
  • If the person responsible does agree to their post coming down, the online host has to take it down as soon as practical. If the person responsible doesn’t agree to it being taken down, the material stays where it is, unless and until you’re able to get it removed later – for example, by a court takedown order.
  • If the person responsible doesn’t respond within 48 hours after getting the copy of your complaint, the host has to take down the material as soon as practicable.

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Bullying, harassment and sexual harm

Where to go for more support

Community Law

Your local Community Law Centre can provide you with free initial legal advice.

Find your local Community Law Centre online: www.communitylaw.org.nz/our-law-centres

Victims Information

Victims Information is managed by the Ministry of Justice and provides links to a range of services available to help victims deal with the practical and emotional effects of the crime.

Website: www.victimsinfo.govt.nz
Phone: 0800 650 654

NZ Police

The police provide a list of phone counselling services and websites that can help victims of bullying and cyberbullying.

Website: www.police.govt.nz/about-site/other-sites/no-bully-website

Harassment and bullying in the workplace

The Worksafe New Zealand website has information and guidance about workplace bullying.

Website: www.worksafe.govt.nz/topic-and-industry/bullying-prevention-toolbox

Te Kāhui Tika Tangata/Human Rights Commission

The Human Rights Commission website provides information about human rights in Aotearoa and outlines how you can make a complaint to the Commission.

Website: tikatangata.org.nz or www.hrc.co.nz
Email: infoline@hrc.co.nz
Phone: 0800 496 877 (0800 4 YOUR RIGHTS)

Information on racial harassment: www.hrc.co.nz/files/6714/2354/5062/24-Nov-2009_16-20-38_RacialHarassment-web.pdf

To make a complaint online, download a complaint form or find out more about the complaints process: tikatangata.org.nz/resources-and-support/make-a-complaint

YouthLaw Aotearoa

YouthLaw provides free legal advice for young people throughout New Zealand. Their website provides great information for young people about the law around harassment and bullying.

Website: www.youthlaw.co.nz
Email: nzyouthlaw@gmail.com
Phone: 0800 UTHLAW (0800 884 529)



NetSafe provides free and confidential help if you’ve been bullied, abused or harassed online. NetSafe has been appointed by the government to be a free information service and complaints agency under the Harmful Digital Communications Act.

Website: www.netsafe.org.nz
Email: help@netsafe.org.nz
Phone: 0508 NETSAFE (0508 638 723)
Text: “Netsafe” to 4282

Ministry of Justice – applying for a Harmful Digital Communications Order

See the Ministry of Justice website for information about applying to a District Court judge for a “take down” order or other type of action when you’ve suffered serious emotional distress because of cyberbullying.

Website: www.justice.govt.nz/courts/civil/harmful-digital-communications/applying-for-a-harmful-digital-communications-order

NOTE: Before you apply to the court you must have complained to NetSafe.

Support for sexual harassment and assault

Wellington Rape Crisis

Wellington Rape Crisis provides free social work and counselling services to survivors, along with their friends, family, whānau and supporters.

Website: wellingtonrapecrisis.org.nz
Phone: 04 801 8973
Email: support@wellingtonrapecrisis.org.nz


HELP has been Auckland’s specialist provider of sexual abuse support services since 1982.

Website: www.helpauckland.org.nz
Email: gethelp@helpauckland.org.nz
Phone: 0800 623 1700
Instagram: www.instagram.com/helpauckland

Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse Aotearoa

Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse Aotearoa aims to enable all male survivors of sexual abuse to access a national network of a high quality support services.

Website: malesurvivor.nz

Contact your local support organisation: malesurvivor.nz/contact

Safe to Talk

Safe to Talk offers free confidential contact with a trained specialist at any time, day or night, seven days a week.

Website: safetotalk.nz
Email: support@safetotalk.nz
Phone: 0800 044 334
Text: 4334

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