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Criminal & traffic law


Types of assault charges and penalties

“Common assault”: The basic assault charge

Summary Offences Act 1981, s 9; Crimes Act 1961, s 196

If you’re charged with a basic assault charge – “common assault” – this can either be under:

  • the Summary Offences Act 1981 (section 9), with a maximum penalty of six months’ jail or a fine of up to $4,000, or
  • in more serious cases, the Crimes Act 1961 (section 196), which has a maximum penalty of up to one year’s jail.

If you plead not guilty, you’ll have a trial in the District Court in front of a judge, and you won’t have the right to a jury trial. This is because these are both Category 2 offences, the processes for the four different categories are explained in the chapter “The criminal courts”, under “Overview of how the criminal courts work”.

Note: It’s quite common for the police to bring a charge under the more serious Crimes Act assault provision, and to then agree with the defendant to reduce it to Summary Offences Act assault if the defendant pleads guilty. Informally this is sometimes called “plea bargaining”.

What is an “assault”?

Crimes Act 1961, s 2(1), “assault” definition; Summary Offences Act 1981, s 2(1), “assault” definition

The legal definition of assault is very wide – it covers any situation where you intentionally apply force against another person’s body. It includes when you do this indirectly – by throwing something for example.

An assault can include very minor force. However, the amount of force used will be relevant when the police are deciding whether to charge you – and, if you’re charged and convicted, when the judge is deciding what sentence to give you.

An assault also includes threatening to apply force to another person’s body – but only if you’re able to carry out your threat or if you make the other person believe on reasonable grounds that you can carry it out. The threat can be by a statement, act or gesture (like clenching your fist). This means that aggressive behaviour like, for example, bashing walls around a family member can also potentially amount to an assault, even though you haven’t touched the other person.

An “assault” also includes an attempted assault, so you can be convicted of assault even if you “swing and miss”.

Example: Assault in a bar

Case: [2012] NZHC 3497

A defendant was drunk in a bar and tried to hit a security guard, unsuccessfully. He was convicted of common assault (Summary Offences Act) and sentenced to two and half months’ jail, including a discount for pleading guilty. He had a very long record of minor offending, and had alcohol and mental health issues.

What sentence am I likely to get for common assault?

For a “common assault” at the minor end of the scale, you may be able to get a discharge without conviction, as in this example:

Example: Discharge without conviction

Case: [2012] NZHC 2323

The defendant had played a very minimal role in an assault by a family group on one of its members. A working solo mother of three with no criminal record, she was studying for a business diploma and hoped to apply for better jobs in the future. The judge decided that the effect of a conviction for such a minor assault would have been out of all proportion to her offence, harming her future job prospects.

For more serious cases of common assault, particularly if you have any previous assault convictions, you may be fined or given a community-based sentence or a prison term, as in these examples:

Example: Both aggravating and mitigating features

Case: [2015] NZHC 161

A defendant was convicted of common assault under the Summary Offences Act and given 100 hours’ community work and six months’ supervision for two uppercut punches to the victim’s head. There were various aggravating and mitigating features that roughly cancelled out: it was a “brazen” assault in front of the police and she had a criminal record; but on the other hand there were no previous assault convictions and it was four years since the last offence, and she’d pleaded guilty and expressed remorse.

Example: Defendant refused a discharge
without conviction

Case: [2015] NZHC 1359

A defendant in a more serious assault case involving punching and kicking was refused a discharge without conviction and given nine months’ supervision and 100 hours’ community work. She had previous assault convictions, which the judge said argued strongly against getting the discharge. She said she’d just enrolled in a real estate agent’s course, but the judge didn’t give this much weight; he said that it might have been different if she’d already been doing the course for some time and was now about to apply for a real estate agent’s licence.

Example: Six months’ jail time

Case: [2015] NZHC 2589

A defendant was given six months’ jail for an unprovoked assault from behind on a stranger. He was charged with common assault under the Crimes Act. Although the assault caused the victim little harm, the defendant had a long criminal record, including other assault convictions.

More serious charges for violent offending

Crimes Act 1961, ss 194, 192, 193, 189(2), 188(2), 189(1), 188(1)

Beyond common assault, there are a range of offences for violent behaviour of increasing seriousness, including:

    • male assaults female (with a maximum penalty of two years’ prison)
    • aggravated assault (maximum penalty – three years)
    • assault with intent to injure (maximum penalty – three years)
    • intentionally injuring a person (maximum penalty – five years)
    • wounding with intent to cause injury (maximum penalty – seven years)
    • injuring with intent to cause grievous bodily harm (maximum penalty – 10 years)
    • wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm (maximum penalty – 14 years).
Example: Assault on disabled employer

Case: [2015] NZHC 2603

A defendant was jailed for 10 months after attacking his employer, who had only one leg and needed crutches in daily life. He had pushed the employer to the ground and then hit him approximately 12 times with one of the steel crutches, hard enough to damage the crutch. The defendant pleaded guilty to assault with intent to injure (and also to a charge of threatening to cause grievous bodily harm). He had a recent previous assault conviction.

Family violence: Sentencing in specialist Family Violence Courts

A large proportion of assault charges involve family violence. Some District Courts have specialist Family Violence Courts (including in Waitakere, Manukau, Auckland City, Lower Hutt, Masterton and Porirua), and these are better equipped to deal with the specific character of this type of offending.

Staff at these specialist courts work with people who have experienced family violence to make sure they and their children are safe, and will put them in touch with other government agencies and community services that can help, like Women’s Refuge and Stopping Violence programmes. The Family Violence Courts deal with cases in block sittings, with specialist judges, prosecutors and victim advisors, and they have close working relationships with the key community support services.

The Family Violence Courts also encourage defendants to address their issues – for example, by taking part in family violence programmes or drug/alcohol counselling.

Other District Courts that don’t have those specialist resources and expertise will generally treat family violence offences in the same way as assaults outside family settings.

For information about protections against family violence (which the law used to call “domestic” violence), see the chapter “Family violence and elder abuse”.

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Common crimes

Where to go for more support

Community Law


Your local Community Law Centre can provide free initial legal advice and information.

Ministry of Justice


The Ministry of Justice website has a range of pamphlets and other information on the criminal court system. You can access this information online, or you can order hardcopies of the pamphlets from:

Phone: 0800 587 847
Email: publications@justice.govt.nz

Drug Foundation


The New Zealand Drug Foundation has a large amount of information about different drugs and their effects, and about criminal offences and penalties. They also provide drug checking services.



KnowYourStuffNZ provides free information, advice, and drug checking services using a range of testing methods at events around New Zealand.

The New Zealand Needle Exchange Programme


The Needle Exchange Programme provides and collects needles for safe disposal, advice on harm reduction, and is licensed to provide drug checking services.

The Level


The Level provides free guides for people who use drugs. Click on “I’m looking for drug checking” on their website for a calendar of non-festival drug checking clinics in Aotearoa.

Ministry of Health


The Ministry of Health has information about the legal use of cannabis products for medical reasons, and which particular products have been approved. Look under “Our work / Regulation / Medicines control / Prescribing cannabis-based products”.

Ministry of Primary Industries


The MPI website has information about recreational fishing rules and customary gathering rights.

The MPI also runs an automated information line that you can text to find out about minimum sizes and daily catch limits for particular species. Just text the name of the species in your message – just “paua” for example (it doesn’t work if you spell it “pāua”) – and send it to 9889.

How to find the cases we’ve cited in this chapter

This chapter cites a number of New Zealand court decisions as legal authority for the law as we’ve stated it. If you need to look up these cases, you can look at the references for each section and search for them either online or in a law library.

When we give the case citation, we give just the unique case reference – for example, “[2012] NZHC 15”. We haven’t included the case name (which is usually in a format like “Police v Douglas” or “R v Myers”).

You’ll be able to read most of these cases on the government website Judicial Decisions Online, at forms.justice.govt.nz/jdo/Search.jsp. The case will be on that site if the citation we’ve given includes either “NZHC” (for High Court), or “NZCA” (for Court of Appeal), or “NZSC” (for Supreme Court). You’ll need to search for the case on that site by inserting the citation (for example, “[2015] NZSC 135”) in the “Neutral Citation” search field.

Cases that have “NZLR” in the citation (for “New Zealand Law Reports”) usually won’t be available online, but they are available in hard copy in some larger city public libraries, published in orange-brown volumes. For the occasional case that we’ve cited from other report series (like CRNZ, for “Criminal Reports of New Zealand”), you’d need to go to a specialist law library at a university or local Law.

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